The Serra de Tramuntana is the highest mountain range and the most extensive natural area on Mallorca, representing a zone of great ecological value. The range is approximately 90 km long, running from the cape of Formentor in Pollença to the cape of Sa Mola in Andratx, with an average width of 15 km. It runs from south west to north east and 12 km2 of the range lies above 1,000 m, where there is an average of 14 days of snowfall per year. The highest peaks on Mallorca are found in the central section of the range, with Puig Major (1,447 m), Massanella (1,352 m), Tossals Verds (1,115 m) and Puig Tomir (1,103 m). These mountains occupy most of the land space within the municipalities of Andratx, Banyalbufar, Bunyola, Deià, Escorca, Esporles, Estellencs, Fornalutx, Mancor de la Vall, Pollença, Puigpunyent, Selva, Sóller and Valldemossa, as well as taking up a significant portion of the surface area of the municipalities of Alaró, Alcúdia, Calvià, Campanet, Lloseta, Palma de Mallorca and Santa Maria del Camí.
The coastline along the Serra de Tramuntana is very rugged, with few coves and some steep cliffs. It is the most outstanding karst area on Mallorca, with a significant amount of limestone which has been eroded by the effects of weather and water. This gives rise to deep torrents, such as the Torrent de Pareis, which reaches a height of 200 m in the area known as Sa Fosca.
The vegetation includes a series of endemic species. In the highest areas brushwood grows, whilst in the lower zones we find the most extensive holm-oak woods on Mallorca. These woods have long been exploited by man, which has reduced their surface area. There are also large sections of pine forest, which in some spots has replaced the holm-oak woods.
In terms of fauna, there are various mammals, such as goats and sheep, which help to maintain the vegetation and which serve as a source of food for black voltures. There are also pine martens, genets and weasels. There are many species of bird which inhabit the Serra de Tramuntana or pass through during their migrations. There is a wide range of birds of prey, such as the osprey and Eleonora´s falcon, which comes to the Mediterranean from the island of Madagascar. The Mallorcan midwife toad is an amphibian which was discovered in the 1980s, though it was already known as a fossil; the small population of this animal inhabit the least accessible pools and torrents of the Serra de Tramuntana.
Man has inhabited this zone since prehistory. There are important ethnological features which show man´s presence and the exploitation of resources in the area, such as the areas where olive trees have been planted, charcoal stores, ice houses, lime ovens and numerous tracks which formed a communication network and which are now used by walkers, who find the most spectacular landscapes on Mallorca here, with the sea always forming a spectacular backdrop. The land belongs to large estates, which have traditionally been in the hands of Mallorcan aristocracy and wealthy families, though some estates are publicly owned.